Indian Culture and Diversity of Indian Culture

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Diversity Of Indian Culture

India is one of the most beautiful country in South Asia. India is filled with beautiful landscapes, greenery, lakes and Himalayas. India has beautiful rivers, cities, architecture and has became one of the most famous tourist destinations. So in this article we will discuss about Indian Culture and Diversity of Indian Culture. Talking about Diversity Of Indian Culture, India is not only rich in Natural Beauty, but India is also equally rich in its culture and arts. India is known for its cultural and religious diversity and unity in diversity where people of different group, religion live together in peace and harmony sharing their common bond with each other.

Girl River Indian Play Splash  - lotusdigitals6 / Pixabay
diversity of indian culture
lotusdigitals6 / Pixabay

India is also one of the richest country in cultural heritage. Due to the Diversity Of Indian Culture ( indian culture diversity ), India is also known as land of diversity as people belonging to various group are found here. People belonging to different group live in India who has their own culture, languages, art, religions, dance, music make India a diverse country. India being one of the most diverse country in the world, India is also rich in art, architecture, heritage which shows the Diversity Of Indian Culture.  

Culture and Religion has always been the important part in the life of people of India. India is also Known for Unity in Diversity of India. As people of different group and religion live together in unity sharing common bond respecting each other culture, participate in each other’s cultural and religious activities.

Religions / Religious Diversity of Indian Culture

Diversity of Indian Culture/India is one of the most religiously diverse country in the world. People of Different religions live in India. Religion play a important role in the life of Indian people. In India, the major population practice Hinduism. And the other major religions are Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism. According to the Census 2011, 79.8% of the total population are Hindus, 14.2% of the total population practice Islam, 2.3% of the total population practice Christianity, 1.72% Sikhism, 0.7% Buddhism and 0.37% Jainism.

India has the highest hindu population in the world and third highest Muslim population in the world after Indonesia and Pakistan. Although people of different religions live in India, all the people respect each other religions and people live in peace and harmony.

Languages/ Linguistic Diversity of Indian Culture

Talking about Diversity of Indian Culture, Not only culture, architecture and arts, India has also got great diversity in languages. Many languages are spoken in India and many of those languages has large number of speakers However, The Constitution of India recognizes 22 language as the official language of India. So Here are the 22 official language of India:

Bengali           

Bengali is one of the 22 official language. It is majorly spoken in West Bengal, Tripura, Assam and Jharkhand. Almost 85 million Bengali speakers are there in India.        

Hindi

Hindi is mostly spoken in Delhi, Himanchal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Hryana, Bihar, Chandigarh. Hindi is the mostly spoken language in India having over 528 million Native speakers.

Maithili

Maithili is mostly spoken in Bihar and Jharkhand.

Nepalese

Nepali is mostly spoken in Sikkim, Darjeeling and kalimpong district of West Bengal.

Sanskrit

In the present days, Sanskrit is spoken by less than 1% of the Indians. Sanskrit is also the second official language of Himanchal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.

Tamil

Tamil is spoken majorly in Tamilnadu, Andaman, Puducherry.

Urdu

Urdu is also one of the five official language of Jammu and Kashmir. Urdu is mostly spoken in Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir.

Assamese

Assamese is mostly spoken in Asam, Arunachal Pradesh.

Dogri

Dogri is mostly spoken in Jammu and Kashmir.

Kannada

Kannada is spoken mostly in Karnataka.

Gujarati

Gujarati is mostly spoken in Delhi, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh.

Bodo

Bodo is mostly spoken in Assam.

Manipuri

Manipuri language is also called Meitei which is mostly spoken in Manipur.

Oriya

Oriya is spoken mostly in odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh.

Marathi

Marathi is mostly spoken in Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka.

Santali

Santali is spoken mainly in Odisha, Tripura, Bihar, Assam, Jharkhand.

Telugu

Telugu is spoken mainly in Andhra Pradesh, Telangana.

Punjabi

Punjabi is mainly spoken in Delhi, Haryana and Punjab.

Sindhi

Sindhi is spoken in Rajasthan, Gujarat.

Malayalam

Malyalam is spoken mainly in Kerala and Lakshadweep.

Konkani

Konkani is mainly spoken in Goa, Karnataka and Maharashtra.

Kashmiri

Kashmiri is spoken in Jammu and Kashmir.

Festivals

Diversity Of Indian Culture, India is also known as land of festivals. India is one of the country to have most number of festivals. Being so rich in culture and traditions, India has got so many festivals. As in India people from different group and religions live and every religions or community celebrate their culture and festivals in harmony.  Every festivals has its own uniqueness and people celebrate each festivals with joy, spreading love among each other. Some of the festivals of India are:

Diwali

Diwali Decoration Traditional  - motionstock / Pixabay
diversity of indian culture
motionstock / Pixabay

Diwali also Known as the festivals of lights is one of the biggest Hindu festivals. Diwali is celebrated all over the country where all the houses are decorated with lights and people enjoy and wear new clothes. People draw rangolis, decorate house, participate in puja. It is one of the most popular festival in India.

Janmasthami

Janmasthami is celebrated as the birth anniversary of the Lord Krishna. People celebrate Janmasthami by visiting temples, fasting, praying.

Eid-ul-Fitr

Eid-ul-Fitr is one of the most important festival for the Muslim People. Eid-ul-Fitr is celebrated to thank Allah for giving them the strength to fast in the holy month of Ramadan. In this Day, Muslim break their One month long fast. People visit their friends and family to celebrate the festival and share gifts and love with each other.

Christmas

Christmas is also one of the most popular festivals in India. In Christmas, people wear new clothes, spend time with family members, decorate churches with flowers and candles. In Southern India people put small burning oil lamp in their roofs which symbolizes Jesus is the Light of the world.

Holi

Holi also Known as a festivals of color which is celebrated as a victory of good over evil. In Holi, people dance, sing, eat different types of food, enjoy with friends and family members, play with colour .

There are also many other festivals which are celebrated in India like Raksha Bandhan, Onam, Ganesh Chaturthi, Makar Sankranti, Lohri, Ugadi, Chhath, Hanuman Jayanti, Akshaya Tritiya and Many More which shows Diversity of Indian Culture and festivals.

Indian Family System

Wedding Hands Indian Couple  - vatsalrbhatt / Pixabay
diversity of indian culture
vatsalrbhatt / Pixabay

In India, Usually two types of family system are found in India. Nuclear Family and Joint Family.

Joint Family is a large family which consists of three or more generations living together as a single household. Nuclear Family is a smaller family consisting parents and their children. Joint Family consists of parents, children’s and their offsprings. While Nuclear Family consists parents and their childrens. Joint Family is mainly Common in India. The oldest member of the family is considered as the head of the family who makes all the important decision of the family. The members of the family share a common bond from generation to generation.

Nuclear Family includes Parents and their children. In the present days, the number of Nuclear Families is increasing. And the reason for increasing Nuclear Families are lack of accommodation, modernization, Employment opportunities. As many people had to shift to different place for their job which has been the reason to increase Nuclear Family. Another reason of increasing the number of Nuclear Family is Awareness in Women. In the present days, Women are aware about their rights and they do not want to be limited in household works only.

Famous Architecture

Ancient Architecture Art Building  - mvignesh410 / Pixabay
diversity of indian culture
mvignesh410 / Pixabay

Talking about Diversity Of Indian Culture, India is one of the most culturally diverse country in the world where different types of architecture styles can be observed which reflects the unique significance and wide variety of cultures. Here are some of the Famous Architecture of India.

Taj Mahal

Taj Mahal is one of the most famous and most admired architecture of the world. It was built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in the memory of his queen. It is also considered as one of the seven wonders of the world. Every Year Millions of tourists visit Taj Mahal and they are fascinated by the beauty of Taj Mahal.

Amber Fort

Amber Fort is located in Rajasthan, India. It was built by Raja Man Singh, a Kachhawah Ruler and later made by Sawai Jai Singh. It is one of the most visited forts in India. People from different parts of the world visit Amber fort to see its beautiful and amazing culture and architecture. Amber Fort is Known for its artistic and historical architecture. It’s culture and scenic beauty attracts tourists from all over the world.

Sun Temple

Sun Temple is located in the eastern state of Odisha in the city of Puri. Sun Temple was built in 13th century and it is dedicated to Hindu Sun God Surya. Sun Temple is also listed in Unesco World Heritage Site. It is famous for its unique architecture and beauty which has been attracting large number of tourists.

Tawang Monastery

Tawang Monastery is located in the Tawang District of Arunachal Pradesh. Tawang Monastery is also the largest monastery in India and second largest Monastery in the world. Tawang Monastery is also Known as Tawang Ganden Namgyal Lhatse.

Hawa Mahal

Hawa Mahal is situated in Jaipur,India. Hawa Mahal was built by Rajput King, Maharaja Sawai Pratap in 1799. Hawa Mahal also Known as Palace of winds has 953 small windows. Hawa Mahal is famous for its amazing and unique architecture. Due to its beautiful and amazing architecture, it has been one of the most famous tourist destinations in India.

Sanchi Stupa

Sanchi Stupa located in the state of Madhya Pradesh was built by Emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century. Sanchi Stupa is also one of the oldest stone architecture in India. Sanchi is mainly famous for its stupas, Ashoka Pillar, Monasteries, temples which is the major reason for the tourist to visit Sanchi Stupa.

Traditional Dress Of  India

When talking about Diversity of Indian Culture, India is one of the richest country in cultural diversity where people of different group and language live together. And Each group has their unique and traditional dress, language, music, food. So Here are the traditional dresses of the 29 states of India.

Punjab

The traditional dress of Women in Punjab is Salwar which is also known as Punjabi Suit and the traditional dress of the men in Punjab is Kurta and tehmat and pagri in their head.

Assam

Dhoti and Kurta are the traditional dress of Men while Mekhela Chador is the traditional attire for the women in Assam followed by a scaff called Gamosa.

Karnataka

The traditional attire of the women in Karnataka is saree which is made of silk. Karnataka is also Known as the silk Hub of India. And Dhoti also Known as Panche is the traditional dress of Karnataka for the men.

Bihar

The traditional dress of the men of Bihar is Dhoti and Kurta while the traditional dress of Women of Bihar is Saree worn in Seedha Anchal Style.

Sikkim

The traditional attire of the Sikkim is common for both males and female. Women wear full sleeved blouse known as honju while men wear Bakhu with leather boots.

Rajasthan

The traditional attire of male in Rajasthan is Dhoti and Kurta and the traditional attire of female in Rajasthan is odhni, ghagra and choli.

Meghalaya

Jainsem made of mulberry silk is the traditional attire of the female in Meghalaya while men of the meghalaya wear loincloth.

Himanchal Pradesh

The traditional dress of women in Himanchal Pradesh is long Kurtas and men in Himanchal Pradesh wear Kurtas with Shirt.

Jharkhand

The traditional attire of the women of Jharkhand is Panchi and Parhan and kurta pajama and dhoti is the traditional attire of the men of Jharkhand.

Jammu and Kashmir

Men in Jammu and Kashmir wear pathani suit. Pheran ( a long loose coat) is the attire in Jammu and Kashmir which is worn by both males and females.

Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu is the state in Southern India. Women in Tamil Nadu wear Sari while the men in Tamil Nadu wear Lungi or Dhoti with Shirt.

Himanchal Pradesh

Women in Himanchal Pradesh wear Salwar-Kameez, Kurtas and the men of Himanchal Pradesh wear Dhoti, Kurta and Turban.

Madhya Pradesh

The traditional dress of women in Madhya Pradesh is Lehenga, Choli and Odhni. Dhoti and Safa (a kind of Turban) is the traditional dress for men in Madhya Pradesh.

Manipur

The traditional dress for women in Manipur is Innaphi and Phanek while men of Manipur wear Dhoti, white Pagri.

Kerala

Mundu or Dhoti is the traditional dress of men in Kerala. The traditional attire of women in Kerala is Mundum- Neriyathum. Mundum Neriyathum is also known as set saree.

Andhra Pradesh

The traditional attire for the men in Andhra Pradesh is Dhoti and Kurta while the traditional attire for the women in Andhra Pradesh is Saree and Blouse.

Uttarakhand

The women in Uttarakhand wear Gagra-Kameez and the men of the Uttarakhand wear Lungi or Dhoti with Shirt.

West Bengal

The traditional dress of the women of West Bengal is Saree, kurtas and salwars and the traditional dress of the men of the West Bengal is Dhoti and Kurta.

Mizoram

The men of Mizoram wear Red or White coloured coat and pagri or turban in their head and the traditional dress of the woman of the Mizoram is Puan.

Telangana

The traditional dress of the women of the Telangana is Salwar Kameez, churidar, langi voni and the traditional dress of the men of the Telangana is Dhoti ( also known as Pancha)  and Kurta.

Uttar Pradesh

The traditional dress of the women of Uttar Pradesh is Saree, Salwar Kameez and the traditional dress of the men in Uttar Pradesh is Dhoti,lungi.

Odisha

Dhoti, Kurta, Gamucha are the traditional attire of the men of the Odisha and the traditional attire of the women of Odisha is Saree.

Gujarat

The traditional attire of the women of Gujarat is Chaniya Choli or Ghagra Choli. Kediyu, Dhoti, Kurta are the traditional dress of the men  of the Gujarat.

Arunachal Pradesh

Men in Arunachal Pradesh wear Dhoti and Kurta and women in Arunachal Pradesh wear Saree and Blouse.

Maharashtra

Men in Maharashtra wear Dhoti with Shirt and women in Maharashtra wear Saree. Women in Maharashtra wear saree which is 9 yards and also known as Nauvri.

Chattisgarh

Women of Chattisgarh wear Saree known as Lugda and blouse known as polkha and men of Chattisgarh wear Dhoti with turban.

Goa

Women in Goa wear 9 yards saree which is known as Nauvri and the men in Goa wear Half Pants, bamboo hats.

Nagaland

Men of Nagaland wear Black kilt(plain black cloth) which is designed with cowries and the traditional dress of the women of the Nagaland is Angami.

Tripura

Rikutu Gamcha is the traditional attire of the men of Tripura. Risa and Rignai are the traditional attire for the women in Tripura.

Food of India

Pokora Aloo Makki Indian  - timokefoto / Pixabay
diversity of indian culture
timokefoto / Pixabay
Food Cake Pastry Dessert Baking  - mirkosajkov / Pixabay
diversity of indian culture
mirkosajkov / Pixabay

Diversity of Indian Culture is not only limited to arts, architecture and languages but India has also got a wide variety of tasty and famous food. Different types of food are found in India. So here are some of the famous food in the 29 states of India.

  1. Uttarakhand – Kaafuli, Baadi, Phaanu, Bal Mithai
  2. Goa – Fish Curry  and Rice , pork vondaloo
  3. Nagaland – Bamboo Shoot, Axone, Anishi
  4. Meghalaya – Jodoh, Bamboo shoot
  5. Odisha – Chenna Poda, Gupchup
  6. Rajasthan – Dal baati churma, onion kachori.
  7. Telangana – Biryani, Mutton Dalcha.
  8. Mizoram – Bamboo Shoot Fry, Misa Mach Poora.
  9. Sikkim – Momos, Thukpa , Dhal Bhat
  10. Bihar – Litti, Khichdi, Pakoda
  11. Himanchal Pradesh – Chana Madra, Chha, Aktori
  12. Jharkhand – Pitha, Khapada, Roti, Arsa
  13. Gujarat – Dhokla, Thepla, Khakra
  14. Arunachal Pradesh – Bamboo shoot, Rice
  15. Chattisgarh – Bhajia, Muthia
  16. Maharashtra – Pav Bhaji, Puran Poli
  17. Assam – Alu, Fish Cooked in Banana Leaf
  18. Punjab – Lassi, Kulcha
  19. Jammu and Kashmir – Rajma, Aloo Dum
  20. Kerala – Appam, Kadala curry
  21. Tamil Nadu – Sambar, Rasam
  22. Haryana – Khichri, Mixed Dal
  23. Andhra Pradesh – Pulihora, Curd Rice
  24. Madhya Pradesh – Bhettey ke kees, Poha Jalebi
  25. Manipur – Kangshoi, Paaknam
  26. West Bengal – Kosha Mangsho, Luchi-Alur Dom, Kathi Rolls, Jhal Muri
  27. Tripura – Chakhwi, Mui Borok.
  28. Uttar Pradesh – Kabab, Mutton Kofta
  29. Karnataka – Chow Chow Bath, Mysore Pak

Heritage Sites of India

A total of 40 world heritage sites are there in India out of which 32 are cultural sites, 7 are natural sites 1 is mixed( both cultural and natural ). So here are the list of 40 World Heritage Sites of India with their listed date.

Taj Mahal – 1983

It was built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in the memory of his queen. Taj Mahal is also known as the symbol of love and was built in 1631.

Ellora Caves – 1983

Ellora Caves is located in Maharashtra and was built by Krishna I( Rashtrkuta King) . There are total of 34 cave temples among which 17 are Hindu temples, 12 are Buddhist temples, 5 are Jain temples.

Ajanta Caves – 1983

Ajanta Caves is located in Maharashtra and was listed in UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983. Every Year Large number of tourist visit Ajanta Caves to see different types of arts, architecture, paintings and sculptures.

Khajuraho – 1986

Khajuraho is located in Madhya Pradesh which has a group of Hindu and Jain temples. It was listed in UNESCO world heritage site in 1986.

Hampi – 1999

Hampi situated in Andhra Pradesh was listed in World Heritage site in 1999 which attracts large number of tourist because of the beautiful and unique architecture, sculptures and monuments.

Agra Fort – 1983

Agra Fort situated in Uttar Pradesh was listed in World Heritage Site in 1983.

Champaner- Pavagadh Archaeological Park – 2004

Champaner – Pavagadh Archaeological Park is located in Gujarat. Vanraj Chavda, the King of Chavda dynasty built Champaner – Pavagadh Archaeological Park. It was listed in World Heritage site in 2004.

Bhimbetka Rock Shelters – 2003

Bhimbetka Rock Shelters located in Madhya Pradesh was listed in World Heritage Site in 2003.  It was discovered in 1958 by one of the famous archaeologist Vishnu Sridhar Wakankar.

Kaziranga National Park – 1985

Kaziranga National Park is situated in Assam which is considered as the home of one – horned rhinos. It was listed in World Heritage Site in 1985.

Sundarbans – 1987

Sundarbans located in West Bengal was listed in World Heritage Site in 1987.

FatehPur Sikri – 1986

FatehpPur Sikri located in Uttar Pradesh was built by Mughal Emperor Akbar. It is famous for its beautiful architectural styles, monuments and temples.

Dholavira : A Harappan City – 2021

Dholavira located in Gujarat was listed in World Heritage Site in 2021.

Keoladeo National Park – 1985

Keoladeo National Park located in Rajasthan was listed in World Heritage Site in 1985. Keoladeo National Park was declared National Park in 1982.

Basilica of Bom Jesus – 1986

Basilica of Bom Jesus is a church located in Goa which was listed in World Heritage Site in 1986. It is also known as the oldest church of Goa.

Qutb Minar Complex – 1993

Qutb Minar Complex is located in New Delhi, India. It was listed in World Heritage Site in 1993.

Nilgiri Mountain Railway Line – 2005

Nilgiri Railway Line is a railway in Tamil Nadu and was listed in World Heritage Site in 2005.

Valley of flowers National Park – 1982

Valley of flowers National Park located in Uttarakhand also known as Valley of Flowers is mainly famous for the amazing natural beauty and different kinds of plants and flower available. It was listed in World Heritage Site in 1982.

Nanda Devi National Park – 1988

Nanda Devi National Park is situated in Uttarakhand and was listed in World Heritage Site in 1988. Wide Variety of flora, different kinds of birds and different rare animals like snow leopard is present in Nanda Devi National Park.

Hill forts of Rajasthan – 2013

It is situated in Rajasthan which has six forts Chittorgarh, Kumbhalgarh, Jaisalmer, Gagaron, Amber, Ranthambhore which were listed in World Heritage Site in 2013.

Goa Velha – 1986

Goa Velha was declared as a World Heritage Site in 1986.

Gangaikonda Cholapuram – 2004

Gangaikonda Cholapuram is a Village in Tamil Nadu. Gangaikonda Cholapuram Temple was built by Rajendra Chola (Chola King ). It was listed in World Heritage Site in 2004.

Sanchi – 1989

Sanchi is located in Madhya Pradesh and was listed in World Heritage Site in 1989. Many tourist visit Sanchi to see stupas, monasteries, temples.

St.Augustine Tower – 1986

St. Augustine Tower is a church in Goa which was listed in World Heritage Site in 1986.

Dharasuram – 2004

Dharasuram was built by Raja Raja Chola located at Tamil Nadu which is dedicated to Lord Shiva. It was listed in World Heritage Site in 2004.

Humayun’s Tomb – 1993

Humayun’s Tomb is located in New Delhi and it was listed in World Heritage Site in 1993.

Capitol Complex Tourist Center – 2016

It is located in Chandigarh. It was declared as World Heritage Site in 2016.

Chhatrapati Sivaji Maharaj Terminus – 2004

Chhatrapati Sivaji Maharaj Terminus is located in Maharashtra and was listed in World Heritage Site in 2004.

The Victorial and art Deco Ensemble Of Mumbai – 2018

The Victorial and art Deco Ensemble Of Mumbai is located in Mumbai and was listed in World Heritage Site in 2018.

Manas National Park – 1985

Manas National Park located in Assam was declared as a National Park in 1928. Manas National Park was declared World Heritage Site in 1985.

Darjeeling Himalayan Railway – 1999

Darjeeling Himalayan Railway is located in West Bengal. It was listed in World Heritage Site in 1999.

Konark – 1984

Konark is located in state of Odisha. The amazing artichecture of Konark attracts large number of visitors. It was listed in World Heritage Site in 1984.

Kakatiya Rudreshwara Ramappa Temple – 2021

Kakatiya Rudreshwara Ramappa Temple is located in Telangana and it was listed in World Heritage Site in 2021.

Elephanta Caves – 1987

Elephanta Caves was built by Rashtrakuta Kings. It is located in Maharashtra and was listed in World Heritage Site in 1987. It is famous for different Hindu Sculptures and artitecture.

Pattadakal – 1987

Pattadakal is located in Karnataka and was listed in World Heritage Site in 1987. Pattadakal is famous for the amazing and beautiful architecture.

Mahabodhi Temple – 2002

Mahabodhi temple located in Bihar was built by Emperor Ashoka. It is one of the most famous Buddhist temples and Mahabodhi temple is marked as a location where Buddha attained Enlightenment.

Sundarban National Park – 1987

Sundarban National Park in West Bengal was declared as a National Park in 1984 where almost 400 tigers are given shelter.

Mahabalipuram – 1984

Mahabalipuram located in Tamil Nadu has a lot of beautiful rock arts, monuments, sculptures, due to which large number of tourists visit Mahabalipuram.

Great living Chola Temple – 1987

It was built by Chola King, Rajaraja I. Great Living Chola Temple is located in Tamil Nadu. There are 3 Chola temples which are Brihadisvara Temple (Gangaikondacholapuram), Brihadisvara Temple (Thanjavur) and Airavatesvara (Darasuram).

The Great Himalayan National Park – 2014

The Great Himalayan Nationals park is located in Himanchal Pradesh with an total area of one thousand one hundred seventy one (1171)  sq.km.

Chittorgarh Fort – 2013

Chittorgarh Fort situated in Rajasthan is the largest fort in India and Asia. Chittorgarh Fort is also known for the bravery and pride of Rajputs.

India is truly a beautiful and one of the most diverse country in the world and known for the Diversity of Indian Culture. Whether it is cultural or natural diversity, indian culture and arts, architecture, India is a gifted country. India has a lot of things to offer for the visitor. Due to diversity of Indian Culture, India is one of the most amazing and beautiful country in the world where visitors can really enjoy their best time. So, India is Known as a Land Of Diversity.

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